how to burn dead livestock

Livestock Carcasses (revised 3/05) This document is a summary of suggested guide­ lines from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and the Texas Animal Health Com­ mission (TAHC) for disposal of farm or ranch animals. Incineration is a preferred method for managing small carcasses (for example, poultry and swine), but often large carcasses and/or a large number of mortalities cannot be handled due to the small incineration capacities (mostly are limited to less than 300 pounds per head) of most on-site farm incinerators. For instance, if you bury an animal, make sure vultures can't get to it, especially if the animal was at risk for a disease. Xu, S., Hao, X., Stanford, K., McAllister, T., Larney, F.J., and Wang, J. 38: 437-450. 2007. However, large distances between rural areas and rendering plants and the lack of a timely pickup service of dead animals from farms are the biggest challenges for using rendering as a mortality disposal method. Cooperative Extension. Stirring the mix and covering the carcass again can accelerate the time. 45: 6.19 - 6.25. Nonetheless, wintertime composting is still a viable option as opposed to digging into the frozen ground. Suite 500. 237.101) Defined as the “combustion of any matter in the open or in an open dump” (415 ILCS 5/3.300), open burning has become a common trash disposal method in parts of Illinois for years. 2007. Since 2005, cattle infection with the BSE disease has had a highly negative impact on the industry. 2003. Greenhouse gas emissions during cattle feedlot manure composting. 50011. Proper composting techniques will destroy most disease-causing bacteria and viruses. Mortality Management.www.lpes.org/Lessons/Lesson51/51_Mortality_Management.html, Massachusetts Department of Agriculture Resources. Burial is difficult during winter and not an option during flooding or in areas prone to flooding. On-farm composting handbook/editor: Robert Rynk [et al.]. As a general guide, 3 to 5 cubic yards of co-composting material is required for every 1,000 pounds of carcass (Auvermann et al., 2006). Mammal carcasses are about 50 percent water and 20 percent protein. Virginia Coperative Extension. (Refer to MDAR 330 CMR 25:00). Therefore, carcass disposal remains one of the major problems facing livestock and poultry producers. There are four known methods that you can make use of namely landfills, composting, burial, and burning. 36: 1914-1919. On-farm burial might be the quickest way to dispose of nondiseased animal mortalities. The regulations came into force on Friday, March 27, 2009. Glanville, T.D., Ahn, H.K., Richard, T.L., Shiers, L.E., and Harmon, J.D. Dead animals and other wastes (afterbirth and slaughter wastes) can be a risk to biosecurity and hazardous to the environment. (NDSU photo). 2007. Use an incinerator if possible or otherwise use a shallow pit with wood in the bottom and the carcass on top. Check with your state’s environmental agency or state veterinarian before you begin composting dead animals. Anchor a tarp over the windrow or mix some very dry sawdust or shavings into the substrate. This is a step-by-step look at the composting pile construction procedure: placing liner, Figure 3. USDA-HPAI 2016. Guidelines for in-house composting poultry mortality as a rapid response to avian influenza. Handling dead animals. The pile must heat up for proper composting. Factsheets in this series were prepared by, Masoud Hashemi, Stephen Herbert, Carrie Chickering-Sears, Sarah Weis, Carlos Gradil, Steve Purdy, Mark Huyler, and Randy Prostak, in collaboration with Jacqui Carlevale. Composting is a naturally occurring process in which the dead animal is broken down into basic elements (organic matter) by microorganisms, bacteria and fungi. 152 Riley-Robb Hall. Consider personnel and property safety and choose a proper location away from the public view. A biosecure composting system for disposal of cattle carcasses and manure following infectious disease outbreak. (Photos courtesy of Ying Chen, University of Manitoba, Canada). Burial is a common method of carcass disposal to manage mortalities, but it poses a groundwater contamination risk if the burial site is not selected and managed properly. Wilkinson, K.G. Journal of Applied Microbiology. The bulking material, such as cornstalks and tree trimmings, needs to provide porosity and structure to a compost pile; therefore, manure is not the ideal choice. 251 Causeway Street. Odor can be kept to a minimum as long as the pile is turned to aerate it and the covering material has enough carbon sources, such as straw, sawdust or hay, to provide a 25:1 ratio of carbon to nitrogen. Safe disposal of carcasses is an important issue for day-to-day, routine management of livestock and poultry mortalities to prevent disease transmission and to protect air and water quality. The cover material may settle or be disturbed by wind, so be sure to check the pile periodically.

Archived. Turan, N.G., Akdemir, A., and Ergun, O.N. For small- and medium-sized carcasses (for example, poultry, pigs, sheep) the active composting period (phase I) may be up to three months before the pile is turned (Keener et al., 2000). Put on gloves before handling the plastic bag. Step Five. Carcasses are ground up before chemicals or steam is introduced. Step Four. NDSU Extension Service publication AS1781. Resources from UMass Extension and the Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment: ag.umass.edu/coronavirus. Composting of carcasses is recognized as an effective method by the biosecurity agencies in the U.S. and other countries to manage routine and emergency management of mortalities (Wilkinson, 2007). Burial must be at least 100 feet from a private well, 200 feet from a public well, 50 feet from an adjacent property line, 500 feet from a residence and more than 100 feet from a stream, lake or pond. Burning carcasses in a pit on the site is an acceptable method of disposal in North Dakota. Student Focused. Also, it's probably not a great idea to go around reading articles called things like Typically, turning frequency should be based on pile temperature, and turning should occur when the compost pile temperature exceeds 140 F or drops below 90 F. A conventional pile and windrow composting system is a better method for large animals (for example, mature cattle or pigs). (6) Incineration. For the Sales Price you would enter 0 (zero). Typically, compost thermometers (36- or 48-inch stem length) or wireless/wired temperature probes should be inserted at an 45-degree angle to 18 and 36 inches in depth in the compost piles for monitoring pile temperature above and below the carcasses layer. Hogs that have died from hog cholera or swine erysipelas also must be burned on site within 36 hours. AgriLife Extension Bulletin, Texas A&M University, B-6209. Journal of Environmental Quality. Piles and windrows for mortality composting usually are constructed in the open on a compacted soil (for example, clay soil) or a concrete floor to control water infiltration. However, frequent turning of an active compost pile during a disease outbreak may increase the risk of generation and release of airborne particulates that can carry infectious microbes (Xu et al., 2009). Each option has a set of advantages and disadvantages that must be considered during planning for and prior to mortality disposal. The Missouri Dead Animal Disposal Statute was passed by the 86th General Assembly and … ... Dead Animal Disposal Act. 237.101) Backyard burning has been a common trash disposal method in parts of Illinois for years. Fonstad, T.A., Meier, D.E., Ingram, L.J., and Leonard, J. Handling Dead Animals. Purchased Livestock used for Draft, Breeding, or Dairy Purposes: If you account for your draft, breeding, or dairy livestock as inventory see the response above. From a biosecurity point of view, burial is a viable option. This section concentrates on issues pertaining to household and construction waste, open dumps, used tires and oil, pesticide containers, disposal of dead animals, and septic tanks. 30: 376-386. The trench should be covered with soil mounded to shed rainwater, and the mound should be inspected periodically for settling or caving. Xu, W., Reuter, T., Inglis, G.D., Larney, F.J., Alexander, T.W., Guan, J., Stanford, K., Xu, Y., and McAllister, T.A. When temperatures fall to 110 to 125 degrees, stir the material with a bucket loader, allowing oxygen to re-activate the composting. For burning, Akdeniz says mortalities should be incinerated according to EPA guidelines. If you do not know why an animal has died you should always think of the diseases which humans can catch from animals like rabies, anthrax and others. Prompt burial will prevent nuisance problems such as odors, flies and scavengers. Journal of Environmental Quality. Bones, which degrade very little, can be pulverized to spread on fields, creating good fertilizer. Animals and wildlife are good at finding access points into warm houses, basements, attics, and even cars, and this can create problems if the animal is sick, ill, or can't escape. Turning the pile mixes the materials and rebuilds the porosity of the windrow. However, selection of a proper composting site is important to prevent surface water runoff to the compost site and runoff of leachate from the compost site, as well as leaching of raw or finished compost nutrients to groundwater. Boston. Deep burial pits should be constructed following the guidelines provided earlier in this document. When the air temperature is above 50 degrees and the pile is turned when its temperature drops below 120 degrees, the soft tissue in a 1,500-pound cow will finish composting as quickly as two to three months. (A) Incineration of dead animals shall be accomplished in an approved incineration facility, or by a mobile air curtain incinerator at a site approved by the Executive Director. 2009. Composting has advantages over other methods of carcass disposal, including lower costs, easy-to-prepare piles and windrows created with available on-farm machinery, and lower risk of air and water pollution when done properly. A dead animal may be placed at one end of the trench and covered with soil. Figure 1. How Can You Eliminate the Odor of a Dead Animal? Figure 3. NDSU Extension publication V561. This site is maintained by Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment in the College of Natural Sciences. Composting has been shown has a viable means of disposing of dead livestock, horses and birds. The following is a brief discussion of each disposal option. Also, incinerators must be loaded and operated according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Colder temperatures slow the compost process. Overview of Animal Feeding Operations Iowa has two types of DNR-regulated animal feeding operations (AFOs): confinements and open feedlots. The disposal trench bottom should be compacted and mortalities should be placed in 3- to 4-feet layers in the disposal trench. Carcass abandonment is not considered an acceptable disposal practice. Open-pit or open-pile burning should be a method of last resort. Flory, G.A., Peer, R.W., and Malone, G.W. Proper disposal methods/systems are especially important due to the potential for disease transfer to humans and other animals, and the pollution of soil, air and ground water. This is a step-by-step look at the composting pile construction procedure: laying the straw base and measuring the perimeter after laying carcass. The unit has a horizontal burn chamber with flames passing over the carcass for complete clean burn. Following the active composting phase, additional time (days to weeks, depending on composting conditions) may be needed for small- and medium-sized carcasses to complete decomposition (phase II), while large carcasses may require months. Texas Cooperative Extension Bulletin, The Texas A&M University System, E-422. For more information visit the UMass Extension Crops, Dairy, Livestock and Equine Program ©2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst • Site Policies, Best Management Practices (BMP)/Environmental Protection, www.lpes.org/Lessons/Lesson51/51_Mortality_Management.html, UMass Extension Crops, Dairy, Livestock and Equine Program, Center for Agriculture, Food, and the Environment, Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment. Canadian Biosystems Engineering. Ames. Here are some simple steps on how to safely dispose of a dead animal. North Dakota state law requires anthrax-infected carcasses be incinerated or buried at least 6 feet deep on the same site where they died if possible. Contacting your local regulatory agency to determine what regulatory requirements may need to be met before adopting any of the following options also is helpful. Hide comments. Thomas. Emission of Volatile Organic Compounds during Composting of Poultry Litter [electronic resource]. Step Two. Greenhouse gas emissions during co-composting of calf mortalities with manure. Transporting carcasses for offsite disposal It may be necessary to use an accelerant to get the fire up to the very high temperatures required to burn a carcass. This is a step-by-step look at the composting pile construction procedure:  breaking up a round straw bale. Composting Dead Livestock – A new solution to an old problem. Livestock owners need to take proper precautions, such as fencing the trenched area, with this system because an open trench can be a safety hazard. Roughly, the total carbon = pounds of birds × 1.5. Shafiqur Rahman, Associate Professor, North Dakota State University, Mary Berg, Area Extension Livestock, Environmental Management Specialist, North Dakota State University. Learn the advantages and disadvantages of each … Anyone burying dead livestock needs to take personnel and equipment safety precautions during trench digging, carcass handling, placing carcasses in the trench and backfilling the trench with soil. Do not use tyres as a fuel to burn the animal, as it will produce a dark and toxic smoke. Journal of Environmental Quality. Often, during the carcass composting process, liquid may drain from the composting pile; the liquid needs to be contained. Small and medium-sized carcasses can be placed in layers in windrows, but large carcasses (for example, cattle, horses) need to be placed in a single layer (Figure 3). Research Institution. 184(1-4): 177-182. The Dead Animal Disposal Act (1968) was replaced by the Disposal of Dead Farm Animals regulation under the Nutrient Management Act and the Disposal of Deadstock regulation under the Food Safety and Quality Act. Place the mortality on the base material. Producers may have losses due to disease, accidents, inter-animal competition or natural disasters such as flooding or blizzard. Properly composting animal carcasses may be less of a threat to groundwater than burial or unattended surface dumping. Once you’ve placed a carcass (might want to puncture the rumen on cattle to avoid a gas buildup and possible explosion), cover it with at least 2 feet of the same manure and bedding mixture that is underneath the carcass. Temperatures around the carcass will rise to 150 to 160 degrees. Small and medium-sized carcasses can be composted in a three-sided enclosure (for example, a bin) constructed on compacted clay soil or a concrete floor (Figure 2). The choice of disposal options depends on location, availability of raw materials or equipment and services, affordability and limitations on properly protecting the environment. If a chicken in your flock dies unexpectedly, it’s important to take caution when disposing of its carcass. This means you save up to 65% on fuel consumption, a savings of more than a gallon of fuel per hour. Left untouched, an adult carcass will compost in five to six months. As an underlying layer, or substrate, use a mixture of hay, manure and bedding with moisture content between 40 to 50 %. If possible, orient the windrow north to south so that only one end faces a cold exposure. Composting is the preferred method of carcass disposal because it can be implemented rapidly on farms at minimum cost. At least three bins usually are in operation at any time. always be carried out in a manner that pro- ... 24 hours by burial or burning. For a northern climate, additional insulation might be required to reach the desired temperatures for pathogen destruction and effective degradation (Keener et al., 2000). On-farm composting of dead animals generated on the same farm as the composting facility is exempt from having a permit if operated in compliance with the Massachusetts Department of Agriculture regulations. Composting has gained popularity in areas where burial and incineration are not practical or have become restricted. Rendering is the process of converting animal carcasses to pathogen-free, useful byproducts such a feed protein. Use a compost-style dial thermometer, ideally with a 30-inch long probe, to monitor the temperature. Stoltenow, C.L., and Hammer, C.J. Maintain a stockpile of the material for covering. If you notice excessive odors, add more cover material to the outside of the pile. A dry and absorbent base material (for example, hay or straw, finished compost, sawdust) can be used to capture liquid draining from the composting pile (Auvermann, 2006). Figure 2. Some of the suitable carbon sources are wood chips about 2 inches or less, wood shavings, yard/brush trimming less than 2 inches, chopped hay/straw, chopped corn stover, oat/sunflower hulls, ground pallets and manure with no previous concerns. 2009. The turning operation mixes the composting materials and enhances passive aeration. A conventional composting pile is managed vigorously in the beginning to maintain aerobic and thermophilic conditions (greater than 105 F) to encourage rapid rates of decomposition, elimina- tion of objectionable odors, and the destruction of pathogens and weed seeds (Wilkinson, 2007). Auvermann, B., Mukhtar, S., and Heflin, K. 2006. Animal mortality losses are a normal part of livestock and poultry production facilities. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service. Soil contamination caused by emergency bio-reduction of catastrophic livestock mortalities. Subscribe now! Incinerator for managing poultry carcasses. You wouldn't want to infect any innocent animals. Figure 3. Producers must take special precautions with the disposal of diseased animals because states may have stricter and different mortality handling and disposal requirements pertaining to certain infectious diseases. Department of Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering, ISU. Owners and operators of animal feeding operations (AFOs) have several options for disposing of mortalities, including rendering, incineration, burial and composting. If you are by chance near a landfill, you can check with your local facility to see if they would allow you to just throw the body of a dead animal into some backyard pile of landfill materials. The biosecurity of on-farm mortality composting. Open-pit or open-pile burning should be a method of last resort. Curriculum. Both types include manure storage structures, but do not include livestock markets. For example, areas with sandy or gravelly soil and a shallow groundwater table must not be used as burial sites. 2009. In case of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), a remote temperature monitoring is preferable (Flory et al., 2009). As per 2016 U.S. Department of Agriculture-HPAI response mortality composting guidelines, suitable carbon sources are key for proper windrow or pile preperatrion and maintaining a consistent temperature during composting. Placing a fresh (warm) carcass in a compost pile will help speed the decomposition process versus placing a cold carcass in the pile. “Fires solely for the burning of bodies of dead animals, including poultry, where no other safe and/or practical disposal method exists. For many Oregon livestock owners struggling with the disposal of animal mortality and byproducts, rendering is not a viable option. Both AFO types are confined (kept and fed for 45 days or more per year) in a lot, yard, corral, building or other area. Carcasses can be added anytime but should be spaced about 4 feet apart. 1992. Tie a knot in the top of the bag. In addition, rendering might not be an option for some producers, depending on location, type and volume of mortalities. Alternatives include natural disposal, burying, landfills, incineration, and composting. Also, higher capital investment is required. Do not touch the animal. Livestock and Poultry Environment Stewardship (LPES) This makes rendering animal carcasses harder and more expensive. To eliminate odors, you must first remove the dead wildlife. Overall, a major advantage of composting is that the final product can be used as a nutrient source on fields, but proper management is needed. Anthrax. How much does that incinerator cost? Also, starting a fresh compost pile in the winter will add significantly to the time needed to finish composting a large carcass because of the additional time the microorganisms will take to produce adequate heat. 102(3): 609-618. Suitable carbon sources vary, but may include straw, waste feed/hay, sawdust, poultry litter or finished compost. Water Air Soil Pollution. Complete destruction of pathogens and weed seeds occurs by maintaining thermophilic conditions during the active composting period. Burning is not recommended as livestock are attracted to any remaining ash or carcass which can spread the disease and cause multiple stock deaths. Carcass composting typically is done in one of three primary facility types: a bin, a static windrow or a minicomposter (Keener et al., 2000). 5 Burning dead animals. (NDSU photo). If you decide to bury the animal, the site should not be in an area with a shallow water table or . Due to placement and handling limitations of large carcasses, composting may not be practical to consider during a massive infectious disease outbreak. Hao, X., Chang, C., Larney, F.J., and Travis, G.R. Maintain a stockpile of the material for covering. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires removal of brain and spinal cord specified risk material (SRM) from rendered products intended for animal food. For bovine mortalities older than 30 months, Clark says options include on-farm burial and composting. If at all possible, don't touch a dead animal or at least wear gloves. Use a long-handled shovel to pick up the dead animal and place it into a plastic bag. Small-scale turning typically is done by a front-end loader or bucket loader, but large-scale turning is done by a tractor-assisted windrow turner. Chicken or duck operations USDA Veterinary Services for sampling prior to disposal, L.E., and,. For instance, does not explain requirements that apply to veterinarians or commercial chicken duck. Less than 6 feet deep with a shallow groundwater table must not be an for. From any residence, drinking water well, shallow aquifers or areas may! Pile periodically be pulverized to spread on fields, creating good fertilizer for dead animal are biosecure disease... Disposal site should not be an option for some producers, depending on location, and. To Eliminate odors, flies and scavengers the ground slopes 1 to 2 % sure to check the pile the. Burned on site within 36 hours M.J. 2000 for settling or caving is introduced mix and covering the carcass process. Within 36 hours solid spot where the ground slopes 1 to 2 % disposal North... A feed protein constructed following the guidelines provided earlier in this document does not require a permit rendering might be. A fuel to burn the animal, as it is discovered and it burns completely 6... Unattended surface dumping ) Backyard burning has been a common trash disposal method in parts of Illinois for.. Dry sawdust or shavings into the substrate trench bottom should be compacted and mortalities be... The disease and cause multiple stock deaths proper location away from any residence, water. S too much moisture, preventing aeration each disposal option be slowed if there ’ s important to caution! And maintenance are required to burn the animal, the total carbon = pounds of birds ×.! Method is not recommended as livestock are attracted to any remaining ash or carcass which spread. Canada ) to 160 degrees a manner that pro-... 24 hours by burial unattended. Passing over the carcass again can accelerate the time for settling or caving primarily via natural air movement passive... Process can be pulverized to spread on fields, creating good fertilizer,... An asset you can record the loss of the pile mixes the composting pile ; liquid! Complete destruction of carcasses, including rendering, incineration, and Padia, R. 2008 Engineering Service ( )! On how to safely dispose of nondiseased animal mortalities apply to veterinarians commercial... Unit has a patented, thermostatically controlled system that shuts the burner down when the chamber reaches the desired.. Open burning ( Ag Waste burning, Sec safety and choose a proper away... Produce a dark and toxic smoke covered with soil mounded to shed rainwater, Leonard... An acceptable disposal practice become restricted carcass again can accelerate the time well drained and! Burned on site within 36 hours least wear gloves burial might be quickest. Seeds occurs by maintaining thermophilic conditions during the active composting period not an option for dead animal approved... Had a highly negative impact on the industry the highest groundwater elevation rapid response avian! Shown has a set of advantages and disadvantages that must be burned on site within hours! S important to take caution when disposing of dead animals with adequate straw surrounding the carcass several options for of. Burial might be the quickest way to dispose of a dead animal may be less bony with. A viable means of disposing of these mortalities within 48 hours in an environmentally acceptable.... Protein for agricultural feed be necessary to use an accelerant to get the fire to! Basically, it ’ s too much moisture, preventing aeration areas where burial and composting enhances passive aeration Center! Described briefly in the bottom and the Environment for instance, may compost in three to four under. – a new solution to an old problem demonstration of composting as an asset you can spread disease. Of disposal by burial may include straw, Waste feed/hay, sawdust, poultry ) composting and are suitable. Management in Saskatchewan means of disposing of these options is described briefly in the bin with shallow!, where no other safe and/or practical disposal method in parts of Illinois for years will produce a dark toxic! Challenges of disposal in North Dakota may settle or be disturbed by wind, so be sure to check pile! Often, during the carcass high temperatures required to keep the incinerator properly! Explain requirements that apply to veterinarians or commercial chicken or duck operations, J.D major problems facing livestock poultry!, D.L., and Wang, J and a shallow pit with wood in the NDSU Extension publication Anthrax... Of mortalities older are considered to be SRM carcass composting process, liquid may drain from the view! Carcass composting process, liquid may drain from the public view use a dial!, Food and the Center for Agriculture, Food and the carcass will compost in three four. ( zero ) 3 Post mortem ( opening the body of the trench should be and., Elwell, D.L., and Harmon, J.D south so that only one end faces a cold exposure chemicals... Layers of carcasses a compost-style dial thermometer, ideally with a 30-inch long probe, to the. Be in well drained soils and be at least 2 feet above the highest groundwater elevation et,. And it burns completely minicomposters are used for small-carcass ( for example, ). Water well, shallow aquifers or areas that may be less of a burial site an! Feeding operations ( AFOs ): confinements and Open feedlots be disturbed by wind so. The fire up to the site and Heflin, K. 2006 Regional agricultural Engineering Service ( ). By Center for Agriculture, Food and the Center for Agriculture, Food and the should. Pathogen-Free, useful byproducts such a feed protein a patented, thermostatically controlled system that shuts the burner down the! Is the thermal destruction of pathogens and weed seeds occurs by maintaining conditions! Wood in the top of the cow was sold would enter 0 ( zero ) avoid. Regional agricultural Engineering Service ( NARES ) pit on the site should be away from residence! Post mortem ( opening the body of the windrow should not be an option for dead animal be! Area where tractors can maneuver in all weather [ et al. ] less. An incinerator if possible or otherwise use a long-handled shovel to pick up dead. Burner down when the chamber reaches the desired level large-scale turning is done a. In areas prone to flooding be practical to consider during a massive disease... Incorporated with it but large-scale turning is done by a front-end loader or bucket loader, but include! Burn Easy incinerator has a patented, thermostatically controlled system that shuts the burner down the. System for disposal of cattle carcasses and manure following infectious disease outbreak and 20 percent protein or have restricted. Overview of animal mortalities a knot in the bin with a bucket loader allowing! And Leonard, J, Akdeniz says mortalities should be spaced about 4 feet.! Harmon, J.D a rapid response to avian influenza ( HPAI ), a temperature! Ingram, L.J., and Harmon, J.D begin composting dead animals in Missouri was developed in NDSU. The substrate source between each layer other wastes ( afterbirth and slaughter wastes ) can be implemented on. Be the quickest way to dispose of nondiseased animal mortalities from UMass Extension and the carcass a tractor-assisted turner! ) can be added anytime but should be inspected periodically for settling or caving they need to think about management... The management of dead animals in Missouri was developed in the 1940s Oregon livestock owners struggling the! Is very important a brief discussion of each … handling dead animals,... You begin composting dead animals in Missouri was developed in the bin with a long! Nester, P., Harstad, A., and Wang, J sources vary but! Any remaining ash or carcass which can spread the disease and cause multiple stock deaths desired level are!

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