vue authentication token

Why do we need both? When the users fill the form, their information is been sent to the API and added to the database then logged in. In the store folder, create a new folder; modules and a file index.js. data() contains the local state value that will be used in this component, we have a form object that contains username, full_name and password, with their initial values set to an empty string. Vue mastery. To deal with Vuex resetting after refreshing we will be working with vuex-persistedstate, a library that saves our Vuex data between page reloads. 2 hours Content. Add the snippet below after the Axios default URL declaration in the main.js file. Interactive means that the user can be prompted for input. Security To get started Go to the views folder, delete the About.vue component, and add the following components: This will display a welcome text to the users when they visit the homepage. x-access-token: [header].[payload]. In this tutorial, we will be using Vuex and ApolloClient connected to a GraphQL API to handle authentication in our Vuejs app. NestJS APIs, Vue 3 Composition API, Typescript, TypeORM, MySQL, Migrations, Send Emails. In our router/index.js file, import our views and define routes for each of them. When a user fills in their username and password, it is passed to a User which is a FormData object, the LogIn function takes the User object and makes a POST request to the /login endpoint to log in the user. Dashboard Courses Pricing Blog Conference Videos Search. After the Login action, the user is redirected to the /posts page. This is the component for our navigation bar, it links to different pages of our component been routed here. Having done that, we can include some styling. Headless WordPress JWT Vue Authentication. All source code for the Vue + Vuex JWT authentication app is located in the /src folder. Traditionally, many people use local storage to manage tokens generated through client-side authentication. Axios will be used in Vuex actions to send GET and POST, response gotten will be used in sending information to the mutations and which updates our store data. This allows us to call the action from the component. we will start by creating a simple REST … Vue.js The first part will cover setting up Laravel to generate JSON Web Tokens. Using the Vue CLI, run the command below to generate the application: Add the vue-router and install more dependencies — vuex and axios: Now run your project and you should see what I have below on your browser: Axios is a JavaScript library that is used to send requests from the browser to APIs. An error with the status code 401 should be returned when an unauthenticated user attempts to access a restricted endpoint. One state is for users that already have an account and only need to login. StatePosts and StateUser return state.posts and state.user respectively value. In my case, whenever login happens, we redirect to the root of the Vue project: The call to router.push("/")> is what does the redirection. Shawn Wildermuth I thought this might be a good place to share what I've learned as well as get my audience to code review what I'm doing. But that assumption is really based on your specific use cases. That's where Routing comes in. The StateUser and StatePosts getters are mapped i.e imported using mapGetters into Posts.vue and then they can be called in the template. Each router link points to a route/page on our app. Vuex — Vuex is a state management pattern library for Vue.js applications, it serves as a centralized store for all the components in an application. May 10th 2020. Vue can’t actually do authentication all by itself, —we’ll need another service for that, so we’ll be using another service (Firebase) for that, but then integrating the whole experience in Vue. Relevant code: user_type.rb, user_type_spec.rb. Modules are different segments of our store that handles similar tasks together, including: Before we proceed, let’s edit our main.js file. I'd suggest not keeping the credentials in the Vuex object to re-authenticate as that's a pretty big security hole. Precious Ndubueze is a software developer who spends half of her time in her head when not getting lost in problem-solving or writing. Good … There are some tricks you can do on the server side with sliding the expiration, on every authenticated call, but it shouldn't be used in high security situations. We’ll use Axios in Vuex to send our requests and make changes to our state (data). The vue-auth plugin simply facilitates the process not the token generation. Using WordPress as a Headless CMS is becoming more and more popular. No Comments. I would just redirect to the login page next time the user needs. To implement the code the performs the user authentication, we will use one of the header component so that when the user is signed in, we can display their name, as well as a Sign … Token state being initialized by its local storage value, if possible. Support. The above code has logs this response so that you can see it for debugging. … If you’ve been able to follow along until the end, you should now be able to build a fully functional and secure front-end application. You’ll need to ensure that only the owner of the token … There isn't a magic way to re-login as this expiration gets close. …. JSON Web Token is the current state-of-the-art technology for API authentication. Otherwise, I just create one. A guide to increasing conversion and driving sales. If it succeeds, I'm storing the token (in Vuex as well). Actions are functions that are used to commit a mutation to change the state or can be used to dispatch i.e calls another action. The unrestricted endpoints are the /register and /login endpoints. We also have showError which is a boolean, to be used to either show an error or not. The minimal ASP.NET Core project exposes two APIs (one for authenticating and one for returning an array of colors). Hosted site: https://nifty-hopper-1e9895.netlify.app/, API Docs: https://gabbyblog.herokuapp.com/docs. The Login function finally commits the username to the setUser mutation. The plugin is designed as a driver model which allows it to work with a lot of other popular plugins and authentication schemes. If you are not sure of an option, click the return key (ENTERkey) to continue with the default option. Getters are functionalities to get the state. Right now we only want JSON responses, and we will attach a JWT token to each of our calls. Vue 3 and NestJS Authentication: Forgot and Reset Password. In this authentication tutorial covering ASP.NET Core and SignalR apps, we will explore how ASP.NET Core allows you to implement authentication using different schemes. These authenticated users are verified by using their login details (i.e. Here is where the main authentication happens. We store the access_token received in the session with the name token. Built with NET 5, Vue 3, Entity Framework Core 5, TypeScript, Bootstrap 4, and Hosted on Azure. After a user successfully logs in, Auth0 sends an ID token to your Vue application. In this article, we will be building an authentication system in Vue using expressjs, MongoDB and JSON web token(JWT) for the authentication. Expiration = token. The value gotten is used to change certain parts or all or like in LogOut set all variables back to null. Now your whole auth.js file should resemble my code on GitHub. UserType and Authentication Token. Now you’ve learned more about Vuex and how to integrate it with Axios, and also how to save its data after reloading. First we need a Login page: Note that all this is doing is taking our model and sending it to Vuex to do the actual authentication. In the methods we import the Register action using the Mapactions into the component, so the Register action can be called with this.Register . WARNING: From version 1.3.0 default request library is axios using vue-axios wrapper plugin. Introduction. Web Development Now let’s create a new folder store in src, for configuring the Vuex store. The isAuthenticatated function checks if the state.user is defined or null and returns true or false respectively. aaxios.defaults.withCredentials = true is an instruction to Axios to send all requests with credentials such as; authorization headers, TLS client certificates, or cookies (as in our case). In this case, I have a function that builds the http object that I use: If the createHttp is called without parameters (or true), then I add the authorization header from the store automatically. Let me know if you see a way to improve the example (or just throw me a PR). In this state, the component will only render two inputfields for the user to provide their emailand password. As you can see in the created lifecycle, we have this.GetPosts to fetch posts when the component is created. It can be used in multiple components to get the current state. Authentication systems, such as Auth0, use ID Tokens in token-based authentication to cache user … Once we have this function, we can apply it on the paths necessary: This way if you go to colors before you're authenticated, we reroute you to the login page. With practical takeaways, interactive exercises, recordings and a friendly Q&A. Our CreatePost action is a function, that takes in the post and sends it to our /post endpoint, and then dispatches the GetPosts action. Set up Vuex actions Our application is a minimal one and we only require to set up … This leads to having restricted routes that can only be accessed by authenticated users. We import Mapactions and use it in importing the LogIn action into the component, which will be used in our submit function. We have a submit method this calls the Register action which we have access to using this.Register, sending it this.form. Implementing JWT Authentication in Vue.js SPA. We will start with cookie based authentication, discuss different authentication schemes followed by JWT Bearer tokens. Since we’ll be making use of Axios when making requests we need to configure Axios to make use of this. Interactive and non-interactive authentication. You’ll start by implementing the AppLogincomponent. The second part gets a little more interesting as it covers authentication using Vue … The access is verified by JWT Authentication. After successfully logging in a user, the access token alongside some data will be received in the Vue app, which will be used in setting the cookie and attached in the request header to be used for future requests. This enables the user to see their posts after creation. On this page, they get access to posts in the API’s database. For some of my course demos I've had to dig into it. To begin, install the Vue CLI and create a Vue application with it: Follow the setup prompt and complete the installation of this application. This allows the users to have access to posts and also enables them to create posts to the API. Vuex is a store used in a Vue application that allows us to save data that will be available to every component and provide ways to change such data. Now inside the modules folder in store create a file called auth.js. Here, we imported Vue, Vuex and axios and set the initial state for the authentication status, token and user information. We can do this what a Guard. In our case we want it to be run before the route is executed: This method takes where the route is going to, coming from, and finally a function (next) to call to either call the route or re-route. In case of an error, the error is caught and ShowError is set to true. Now let’s create a page and a form to get those information: In the Register component, we’ll need to call the Register action which will receive the form data. This should take your code to the same state as the example on GitHub. It is heavily influenced by the Flux architectural pattern created by Facebook.. Vue … Fullstack: – Spring Boot + Vue.js: Authentication with JWT & Spring Security Example – Node.js Express + Vue.js: JWT Authentication … The web is quickly changing from monolithic content management systems that depend on heavy server logic, to light weight, fast and secure web applications built on front end frameworks like Vue… Founded by Vitaly Friedman and Sven Lennartz. Tagged with django, authentication, drf, vue. In the snippet above, we do that using axios.defaults.withCredentials = true, this is needed because by default cookies are not passed by Axios. Looking at the API, the /register endpoint requires a username, full_name and password of our user. See my ASP.NET Core course to see how you can do it too! Our users need to be authenticated, which … With that, we can add just our endpoints like /register and /login to our actions without stating the full URL each time. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. The Authentication request action returns a Promise, useful for redirect when a successful login happens. It’s a process of verifying the identity of users, ensuring that unauthorized users cannot access private data — data belonging to other users. After storing this access_token we redirect to our Vue … All the real magic is in the Vuex store: In this action, I'm just calling the service with post with the username/password. Creating An Authentication Navigation Guard In Vue, Vue.js JWT Authentication With Vuex And Vue Router. According to the Vuex documentation; What does that mean? Let’s quickly gain an understanding of the structure of this new component which can have two major states. In the end, your file should be like this: Our API is set to expire tokens after 30 minutes, now if we try accessing the posts page after 30 minutes, we get a 401 error, which means we have to log in again, so we will set an interceptor that reads if we get a 401 error then it redirects us back to the login page. The tutorial will have two parts. After successfully logging in a user, the access token alongside some data will be received in the Vue app, which will be used in setting the cookie and attached in the request header to be used for future requests. With a commitment to quality content for the design community. We will be building a simple blog site, which will make use of this API. As the ultimate resource for Vue.js developers, Vue … Handling Vue Authentication using GraphQL API. When asked to install vue-router, accept the option, because we need vue-router for this application. Our GetPosts action sends a GET request to our /posts endpoint to fetch the posts in our API and commits setPosts mutation. Notice that loginwill be t… We have an initial state for form, which is an object which has title and write_up as its keys and the values are set to an empty string. Token = new JwtSecurityTokenHandler().WriteToken( token); result. … The backend will check the request header each time a request is made to a restricted endpoint. Authentication It will be a full stack, with Node.js Express for back-end and Vue.js for front-end. Views components are different pages on the app that will be defined under a route and can be accessed from the navigation bar. We have a simple set of routes to three pages (including Login): But we want to protect certain pages if they are not authenticated. If you authenticate, it just returns a JWT: Please don't use any of the server code as an example as it's a minimal JWT implementation to just test the Vue section. Precious If you want to follow along, feel free to grab the complete example: https://github.com/shawnwildermuth/vuejwt. – In-depth Introduction to JWT-JSON Web Token – Vue.js CRUD Application with Vue Router & Axios – Vue File Upload example using Axios. In the client directory, there is a Vue 3 project. The authentication service is used to login and logout of the application, to login it posts the user's credentials to the /users/authenticate route on the api, if authentication is successful the … Get 20% off a year of Vue Mastery. We imported the store object from the ./store folder as well as the Axios package. We start by importing mapActions from Vuex, what this does is to import actions from our store to the component. This library was inspired by well known authentication … It does this by committing a logout: Each mutation takes in the state and a value from the action committing it, aside Logout. Oct 12, 2020 Total Economic Impact of Auth0 Using our platform can yield a … 100 practical cards for common interface design challenges. It will dispatch the LogOut action and then direct the user to the login page. That's where we'll focus. If no error is encountered we make use of this.$router to send the user to the login page. It’s important to note that you only need to do this if the folder does not get created for you automatically. Node.js Express Vue.js Authentication example. This example doesn't handle actually redirecting to colors after you login but you could do that easily. Vue Adal provides a convenient and automated way to do that with an axios http client, called AxiosAuthHttp. Claim Offer. Submitting the form should cause the post to be sent to the API — we’ll add the method that does that shortly. Axios / Vue … The v-if="isLoggedIn" is a condition to display the Logout link if a user is logged in and hide the Register and Login routes. Now we need to configure our Laravel Backend to use Passport instead of the default token driver for the Authentication of our API routes. So many of the Vue demos I've seen fail to look at the authentication use case. We have a logout method which can only be accessible to signed-in users, this will get called when the Logout link is clicked. 2006–2020. This article provides a walk-through of a project that implements session authentication for a web app that uses Vue.js and Django REST Framework, looking at both email/password-based login as well as social login. Vue mastery. In our case, if it's authenticated, we just call the next to move to where the route wants to go. As in the sections before, you’ll set the stage for the login functionality by preparing the VueJS components that are needed for this feature. ValidTo; return Created("", result); } return BadRequest("Unknown failure"); } Please don't … When the user submits the post, we call the this.CreatePost which receives the form object. These values will change to whatever the user enters into the form in the template section of our component. We set our axios.defaults.baseURL for our Axios request to our API This way, whenever we’re sending via Axios, it makes use of this base URL. In this article, you’re going to be learning about: We will be working with the following dependencies that help in authentication: We will be working with these tools and see how they can work together to provide robust authentication functionality for our app. ... SET_TOKEN mutation has token as the payload and assigns the token to state.token. Our Posts page is the secured page that is only available to authenticated users. Subscribe and get the Smart Interface Design Checklists PDF delivered to your inbox. We'll take a look at our starting code and understand the steps needed to add authentication to an app. In this tutorial I’ll cover how to setup JSON Web Token authentication using Laravel and Vue JS. Toggle menu. How Token-Based Authentication works. Get the source code to this blog on GitHub. So now we have a way to log in, what do we do with it? Every week, we send out useful front-end & UX techniques. So this is just a simple form. username/email and password) and assigning them with a token to be used in order to access an application’s protected resources. Our LogIn page is where registered users, will enter their username and password to get authenticated by the API and logged into our site. A guard is a small piece of code that is run during the routing pipeline. Set up a UserType and be sure to expose the authentication_token. Here we are making use of Vuex and importing an auth module from the modules folder into our store. We are only concerned with the data.access_token value, though other information is returned. For example, prompting the user to login, perform multi-factor authentication … Note that while the user is not authorized (and we didn’t set up the token … It can be called in different components or views and then commits mutations of our state; Our Register action takes in form data, sends the data to our /register endpoint, and assigns the response to a variable response. But we can’t log just anyone in. More about Setting the token actually stores, the token and the expiration: Then we can just have a getter that returns whether we're logged in: Notice that the getter is testing both that we have a token and that the expiration hasn't lapsed. But if it isn't we redirect it to the login page. Ok, we now have our routes protected from people that aren't logged in, but how do we use the JWT token now that we have it. From the docs, you’ll notice few endpoints are attached with a lock. Token-based authentication means that our app will allow users to log into it. JWT With the back-end side the of authentication equation complete I now need to button up the client side by implementing JWT authenitcation in Vue… As mentioned earlier, the access token cookie and other necessary data got from the API need to be set in the request headers for future requests. It configures an interceptor the auto-acquires tokens and will retry requests after … This is the Page we want our users to be able to sign up on our application. You can check out the docs to see the endpoints and how requests should be sent. That's why the default is to create a secured connection. A big concern is always a better way to manage … If the user does not have any posts, we simply display a message that there are no posts. Now we’ll have to pass our form data to the action that sends the request and then push them to the secure page Posts. In this example I'm using axios for the network (but you could do something similar with fetch). As authentication uses HTTP headers and exchange high sensitive data (password, access token, …), the communication must be encrypted otherwise someone sniffing the network … Hopefully this minimal example will get you comfortable with using Tokens in your own Vue projects. We also have a section that displays posts obtained from the API (in case the user has any). In your src/components folder, delete the HelloWorld.vue and a new file called NavBar.vue. Thanks for the help! This way, we log in the user after they sign up, so they are redirected to the /posts page. In our state dict, we are going to define our data, and their default values: We are setting the default value of state, which is an object that contains user and posts with their initial values as null. [signature] For more details, you can visit: In-depth Introduction to JWT-JSON Web Token. This could be achieved as we used Vue CLI … Next, we will be dispatching our form username and password to our login action. See my ASP.NET Core course to see how you can do it too. Several of these flows support both interactive and non-interactive token acquisition. For now it is tested to work with vue-resource and axios (using vue-axios wrapper). Else we set showError to true. Don’t be tempted to store the access token in the local storage. Authentication is a very necessary feature for applications that store user data. Now edit your App.vue component to look like this: Here we imported the NavBar component which we created above and placed in the template section before the . In the above code, we have a form for the user to be able to create new posts. This is a way to show that only authorized users can send requests to those endpoints. 0 Students. Well, the unsecured one is actually necessary to do the Login. In vue.js apps to create proper authentication or verification of user’s credentials such username or passwords the vuw.js apps use JWT tokens to maintain the proper privacy of the user’s credentials … Let's see if I can explain how JWT can secure your API without crossing your eyes! Our LogOut action removes our user from the browser cache. Login to your Vue applications with SAML Includes, identity management, single sign on, multifactor authentication, social login and more. Inside the src folder there is a folder per feature (app, home, login) and a few folders for non-feature … Vue-Apollo — This is an Apollo Client integration for Vue.js, it helps integrate GraphQL in our Vue.js apps!. Applications that store user vue authentication token authorized users can send requests to those endpoints explain how JWT can your! We need vue-router for this application we ’ ll notice few endpoints are the /register and /login endpoints by... Is actually necessary to do that with an Axios http client, called AxiosAuthHttp object to re-authenticate that. Just anyone in will cover setting up Laravel to generate JSON Web token vue authentication token start cookie. That store user data in our case, if possible protected resources us to call the next to to. Url each time that mean null and returns true or false respectively returns true or false.. Client-Side authentication when an unauthenticated user attempts to access an application ’ s create a secured connection week. Specific use cases Vue … x-access-token: [ header ]. [ payload.! Attached with a commitment to quality content for the user to provide their emailand.! Introduction to JWT-JSON Web token an auth module from the API and added to the state! Are attached with a commitment to quality content for the user to login / Vue … interactive and token. Accessed from the API ( in Vuex to send the user to be able to up... Each of them our user Forgot and Reset password action returns a,! To grab the complete example: https: //nifty-hopper-1e9895.netlify.app/, API docs: https //nifty-hopper-1e9895.netlify.app/... This state, the /register endpoint requires a username, full_name and password our. And authentication schemes followed by JWT Bearer tokens route/page on our app it links to different pages the! Several of these flows support both interactive and non-interactive token acquisition false respectively then logged in new JwtSecurityTokenHandler (.WriteToken. Really based on your specific use cases posts to the API and setPosts! Certain parts or all or like in LogOut set all variables back to null based on your use. Your whole auth.js file should resemble my code on GitHub and StateUser state.posts. Can visit: In-depth Introduction to JWT-JSON Web token to login, perform multi-factor authentication … Headless WordPress JWT authentication... Typescript, Bootstrap 4, and Hosted on Azure that there are no posts start. Be working with vuex-persistedstate, a library that saves our Vuex data between page reloads, useful for when! Those endpoints to log in, Auth0 sends an ID token to state.token cover setting Laravel. To using this.Register, sending it this.form Composition API, Typescript, Bootstrap 4, and Hosted Azure... Take your code to this blog on GitHub object to re-authenticate as that 's why the default is create... To posts and also enables them to create a file index.js to login perform... One for returning an array of colors ) Axios for the Design.. The login after a user successfully logs in, Auth0 sends an ID token to be able to posts. Will dispatch the LogOut action removes our user from the API authentication: Forgot and password... Secured page that is run during the routing pipeline ; modules and friendly... Be accessed by authenticated users login function finally commits the username to the database then in. Default option page, they get access to vue authentication token in the methods we import the Register action which have! Url each time a request is made to a route/page on our app token acquisition. [ payload.... So they are redirected to the API function checks if the folder does get. Are attached with a commitment to quality content for the user does not have any posts, send! A pretty big security hole in the Vuex object to re-authenticate as that why., to be sent to the API and commits setPosts mutation will change to whatever the user they! The this.CreatePost which receives the form should cause the post, we can add just our endpoints /register. Need to login project exposes two APIs ( one for authenticating and one for returning an of. Content for the network ( but you could do that with an Axios client. Quickly gain an understanding of the Vue demos I 've seen fail to look at the API — we ll... Commitment to quality content for the network ( but you could do something similar with fetch ) interactive means our... Route and can be used in multiple components to get the source code to the API ( in Vuex well! ] for more details, you ’ ll notice few endpoints are attached with a token to be sent the. Interactive means that the user after they sign up on our application send our requests and make to! For you automatically our user, many people use local storage tagged with django authentication. Defined under a route and can be used in our API and commits setPosts mutation payload ] [... Token ( in Vuex as well ) these flows support both interactive and non-interactive.... See if I can explain how JWT can secure your API without crossing your eyes to send the user not! Exercises, recordings and a file index.js content for the user is redirected to the API, component! And more popular be using Vuex and Vue JS ) ; result this.CreatePost which receives the form the! Render two inputfields for the network ( but you could do something similar with fetch ) we also a! To grab the complete example: https: //gabbyblog.herokuapp.com/docs have an account and only need to configure Axios make..., import our views and define routes for each of them necessary to this. /Posts page PR ) attached with a token to your Vue application if no error encountered. Be accessible to signed-in users, this will get called when the users to vue authentication token access to using,! Successfully logs in, Auth0 sends an ID token to be sent to the database logged. Core 5, Typescript, Bootstrap 4, and Hosted on Azure you to! Suggest not keeping the credentials in the Vuex object to re-authenticate as 's. Variables back to null check the request header each time to access an application s! Use it in importing the login s database unauthenticated user attempts to access a restricted endpoint docs to see vue authentication token... Tutorial I ’ ll be making use of this API to install vue-router, accept the option, we. Now we have vue authentication token to posts in the client directory, there is we. Start with cookie based authentication, drf, Vue … interactive and non-interactive authentication small of! Vue.Js JWT authentication with Vuex and Vue JS accessible to signed-in users, this will you! Migrations, send Emails to either show an error with the status code 401 should returned! Information is returned for each of them to be authenticated, we will be a... Practical takeaways, interactive exercises, recordings and a file called NavBar.vue /login endpoints setting up to.: from version 1.3.0 default request library is Axios using vue-axios wrapper plugin redirect! It links to different pages of our component been routed here this.GetPosts to fetch the in... 'M storing the token ( in Vuex to send our requests and make changes to our (..., a library that saves our Vuex data between page reloads many people use local storage value, other. Axios when making requests we need vue-router for this application ’ t just... A full stack, with Node.js Express for back-end and Vue.js for front-end posts and also them! Seen fail to look at the authentication use case storage value, though other is! Each time defined or null and returns true or false respectively page want. 4, and Hosted on Azure security hole of Vuex and Vue router to deal with Vuex importing. Code, we will be working with vuex-persistedstate, a library that saves Vuex. Axios package to follow along, feel free to grab the complete example: https: //gabbyblog.herokuapp.com/docs followed JWT! Be returned when an unauthenticated user attempts to access an application ’ s database section that displays posts obtained the. Users that vue authentication token have an account and only need to do this the! Application ’ s protected resources Vue projects and make changes to our login action the... Is designed as a driver model which allows it to the login next! Enables them to create new posts no error is encountered we make of... Quickly gain an understanding of the Vue demos I 've seen fail to look at authentication... Or just throw me a PR ) and state.user respectively value for an... Time the user after they sign up on our application code that only. In Vuex to send our requests and make changes to our /posts endpoint to fetch the posts in submit! Returns true or false respectively the client directory, there is n't we redirect to... That there are no posts minimal ASP.NET Core project exposes two APIs ( one for returning an array colors... We just call the action from the API and commits setPosts mutation s. With the default option component will only render two inputfields for the user to provide their emailand.... Successfully logs in, Auth0 sends an ID token to your inbox logged! This enables the user to be used to dispatch i.e calls another action feature for that... To configure Axios to make use of this. $ router to send our and... Import our views and define routes for each of them, drf, Vue 3 and NestJS:! Id token to state.token anyone in with using tokens in your own projects... Source code to the API ( in case the user can be prompted input... We start by importing Mapactions from Vuex, what do we do with it get the Interface!

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